Plastics Police
Greening Forward
By Lauren Aycock

Plastics Police!
Your guide to saving the planet by REDUCING, REUSING & RECYCLING!

Plastics Police

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About the Exam


The AP Human Geography exam is taken in May by all of the AP Human Geography students in the country who signed up to take it. The test consists of two parts: the multiple choice section and the free response section. Both sections are timed. The multiple choice section is 75 questions long with a 60-minute time limit. The free response section consists of three essay prompts with a 75-minute time limit. Both of these sections are each worth half of the overall grade.

Before You Buy

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Contact Us

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Greening Forward

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Our Mission


Greening Forward helps establish, engage, and empower a diverse global green movement of people for the protection of the environment.

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Did you know..?

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Stuff happens to make other stuff happen! OMGPNZ!

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Models

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Models

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Core/Periphery Model (World Systems Theory)


The world economy is a three-tier structure: the core, the periphery, and semi-periphery. Core processes incorporate higher levels of education and include higher wages and more technology. There processes develop more wealth in the global economy. On the contrary, periphery processes include the lower levels of education and incorporate lower salaries and less technology. Semi-peripheries, as you can imagine, are simply a buffer between the two extremes of core and periphery. This process generally includes the exploitation of the periphery by the core. Although these are processes, they occur in places and are sometimes assigned to states. For example, the US and Canada are core states while Chile and Iraq are periphery.

Models

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Demographic Transition Model


The Demographic Transition Model (DTM) was developed in 1929 by Warren Thompson. It has four main stages. Stage 1 is low growth, Stage 2 is high growth, Stage 3 is moderate growth, and Stage 4 is low growth. In Stage 1, the crude birth rates (CBR) and the crude death rates (CDR) are equally high. The Bubonic Plaque marks Stage 1 because of its high CDR. There are no countries currently in Stage 1. In Stage 2, the CBR is high, but the CDR is declining. During the late 1700s-early 1800s, the world population increased greatly. This was also the time of the Industrial Revolution. In Stage 3, the CDR still decline but much slower. The CBR sharply starts to decline. Most countries in Europe and North America enter Stage 3 in the early 1900s. The world's population still grew, but it grew at a much slower rate. In Stage 4, both the CBR and the CDR are low. Stage 4 also signifies women becoming more educated and entering the work force. Depending on the version of the DTM you look at, there may or may not be a fifth stage. Though not an official stage, it is still possible. In Stage 5, the CBR and the CDR are equally low. This signifies zero growth.

Glossary

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Glossary

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Glossary

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Centripetal


A force that unify the people within a common state or nation, described by the political geographer Richard Hartshorne. These could be as simple as a national culture and common faith or even as complex as the unification during a war.

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REDUCING: What is it?


Reduce. We've all heard this term before, but what does it actually mean? I'm sure you've heard about reusing and recycling, but there is another, even more important step! Think about it: isn't it easier to just avoid getting trash in the first place, rather than having to figure out how to reuse or recycle it? That's the whole idea behind reducing! It's easy to eliminate work by just choosing alternatives to plastic. Keep reading to find out more about reducing, its benefits, and how YOU can start today!

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REDUCING: Watch it!


Watch this quick video to learn more about what it means to REDUCE and why it is so important!

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REDUCING: Read it!


If you want to check out another resource, click here. It is a blog post from Greening Forward. Check it out!

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REDUCING: Do it!


So now you've learned just about everything there is to know about REDUCING, but it's time to DO SOMETHING about it! You can reduce excess paper, packaging waste, and mercury in a few easy steps. You can also set up a compost bin or use greener cleaners. You can also reduce the need for pesticides in your home with ease. To see a full list of ways to reduce at home, school, or the office, click here. You can also sign a pledge here.

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REDUCING!


You can reduce excess paper, packaging waste, and mercury in a few easy steps. You can also set up a compost bin or use greener cleaners. Did you know that the average person buys too much paint for their paint job? You can also reduce the need for pesticides in your home with ease. This website goes into more detail about some fun and creative projects you can do at home.

Ways to reduce...

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At school!


By packing your lunch, using less paper, and using reusable writing utensils, you can start reducing your waste at school. Click here for more ideas.

Ways to reduce...

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At the office!


You should try to use less paper at the office and try to find a printing source that uses environmentally friendly practices. It's also important to buy "green" materials for the office. Find out more here.

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At the store!


Try to buy products that don't have as much packaging and also try to find products that are reusable, refillable, or returnable. Look for house cleaners that aren't as hazardous to the environment or try to rent things instead of purchasing them. When you go grocery shopping, always use reusable bags instead of getting new plastic or paper ones. Check here for more.

Ways to reduce...

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in the yard!


Who actually likes to keep up with their lawn? Anytime you mow, rake, fertilize, or water your lawn, pesticides can run-off into streams. You can make your yard work for you by making it a habitat for birds and other wildlife. It's great for the animals, and it adds great scenery for you. Also, start a compost bin! Check out more ways here!

Unit Four

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Nations


Unlike the common usage of state, country, and nation interchangeably, a nation in geographic sense is a group of people with a common culture, including religion, language, ethnicity, or other common features, and who relate to a territory with a common political goal. It may even be a product of long-term melding of wide varieties of cultural groups, like the modern French nation. The modern French nation is a melding of diverse cultural groups, including the Celts, Ancient Romans, Franks, Goths, along with several others. It's also important to remember that rarely to the borders of a nation correspond to the borders of the state. The Flemish and the Wallonian (in Belgium) along with the Polish in Poland are all examples of nations.

Unit Seven

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Why Cities?


Across the globe, more people are living in urban cities and towns than rural areas. A city is an area of people and buildings clustered and grouped together that act as a unit for a center of politics, culture, and economics. The majority of the world population is indeed urban. An urban area includes the central city area, as well as the suburban realm. In other words, an urban area is the city and its surrounding environs connected to the city. The rise of urbanization shows how the economy of the world is shifting from localized agriculture to the globalization of businesses. The change in urbanization also shows how easy it is to move in the modern, globalized world. Without long journeys on foot or deadly sailing trips to worry about, it has become quite simple to drop everything and move.


"Human communities have existed for over 100,000 years, but more than 90,000 years passed before people began to cluster in towns" (De Blij, Murphy & Fouberg, 2007, p. 260). This quote shows that urbanization is actually a recent affair. Cities today model the modern size and structure of urban areas from the past 200 years. Before people actually began living in cities though, they had to switch from hunting and gathering to agriculture. When people began to plant crops, they would have to stay with their fields in order to reap the harvest. One of the first forms of cities were agriculture villages , which were small villages that were based on agriculture. Because of this, the people had to live on just enough to get by, or near subsistence levels. The homes in agriculture villages were about the same size with same number of possessions. These villages showed egalitarian nature, which just means that goods were shared equally among the people. Two components that enabled the formation of cities were agricultural surplus and social stratification which work hand in hand. Agriculture surplus is, in simple terms, extra crop yield that is more than what the farmer and their family needs. The surplus can be sold for a profit. Social stratification is the separation of a population into classes. Which class a person is a part of depends on factors such as wealth, power, production, and prestige. Of course, not all cities are agriculture based. "In citiees, people generate personal material wealth, trade over long distances, live in stratified classes that are usually reflected in the housing, and engage in a diversity of economic activities- not just agriculture" (De Blij et al., 2007, p. 261).

Unit Seven

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The 5 Hearths of Urbanization


A hearth is a point at which diffusion explodes outwards. Human geographers have defined five hearths as the basis of urbanization expansion. These hearths are Mesopotamia, the Nile River Valley, the Indus River Valley, the confluence of the Huang He and Wei River Valleys, and Mesoamerica.

It's Not Over Yet

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It's Not Over Yet

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REUSING: What is it?


Now it's time for the second step: REUSE. Reusing is all about finding new and creative ways to give items a new purpose. It means getting the "biggest bang for your buck"! When you reuse, you are decreasing the demand for plastic, while keeping it out of the landfills! It is a win-win process. Let's get started!


It's Not Over Yet

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REUSING: Watch it!


Watch this quick video to learn more about what it means to REUSE.

It's Not Over Yet

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REUSING: Read it!


This article from Greening Forward talks about the dangers of plastic.

It's Not Over Yet

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REUSING: Do it!


It's important that we decrease our dependence on these worrisome products. However, there are many ways that you can reuse plastics, without worrying about the dangers. Reusing your plastic grocery store bags saves you time and money, but more importantly, it saves the environment. This is just one way you can make a difference by reusing. Here is a webpage that has 50 different ways to reuse household items to get you started!

Rid The Right Way

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Rid The Right Way

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RECYCLING: What is it?


We've all heard of recycling before, and I'm sure that many of you do recycle. But there are a few things you may not realize about recycling. Continue to find out the truth about recycling, and what you should really do when you are ready to get rid of your plastics.


Rid The Right Way

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RECYCLING: Watch it!


Watch this quick video to learn more about why it is so crucial to rid the right way.


Still not convinced? Here's another video that talks about the dangers of discarded plastic.

Rid The Right Way

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RECYCLING: Read it!


This website has 11 astounding facts about plastic consumption and recycling. Check it out!

Rid The Right Way

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RECYCLING: Do it!


You've learned that recycling can be a great, or costly, tool for helping the environment. So now the question is, how do you recycle correctly? This website lists dozens of materials and how you should recycle them.